Features of Indus Valley Civilization


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  • Towns or cities were laid out on a grid pattern and divided into wards like chessboard, by north-south and east-west arterial roads and smaller lanes. Dholavira was on a radial pattern similar to Mesopotamian cities. On the other hand, Banawali in Haryana district had a very zigzag pattern of roads.
  • The arterial roads were perfectly aligned and provided with covered drains having additional soak-pits made of pots and placed at convenient intervals.
  • Each house had its own sanitary system, and in larger towns like Lothal, Kalibangan and Mohenjodaro, terracotta pipes with faucets were also employed for supplying water.
  • Use of burnt bricks except at Banawali.
  • Well organized internal as well as external trade with many areas both internal and external.
  • Large buildings e.g. Great bath and Great granary etc.
  • At Ur, Kish and other sites in Mesopotamia and Iran some seals of the Harappan type have been found in contexts which suggests the time of Sargon of Agade (city was Akkad – Sargon was the king) which is 2350 B.C. If one takes this as one fixed time in chronology, then the Harappan culture can be provisionally dated about 2500-1500 B.C. The radiocarbon date of the Harappan culture – a case study of Kalibangan in Rajasthan is taken – has been measured at a range between 3252 B.C. to 3002 B.C. Without doubt, the Harappan culture in all its maturity was in existence at the beginning of the third millennium B.C.
  • The mathematical knowledge of the Harappans can be figured out from the symmetrical fire altars and the well-laid out streets and roads besides uniform weights and measures.
  • They had highly developed sense of metallurgy.
  • Metals known to them were Bronze, Tin, Gold, Silver, Copper, though Iron was known to them.
  • Equipments and tools were made of Bronze.
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