The term regionalism refers to that feeling of people of a region in which they display more closeness and faithfulness towards regional identities and interests in comparison to their national identity and national interests. If taken beyond a limit, the regional feeling of nationalism, leading to the emergence of process of disintegration and secessionism.
Regionalism is the stark reality if Indian politics. In some regions, this feeling is sustained on the basis of language. Still in other regions, on the basis of religious cultural or distinct ethnic/tribal groups. Many regional movements have been launched to emphasise distinct and separate regional identity of people. Such movements are still active in Kashmir, Assam, Jharkhand, Uttarakhand etc. following are the main reasons which give rise to the feeling of regionalism in politics :
1. Demand for separate states.
2. Interstate disputes among states.
3. Demand for autonomy by some regional communities.
4. Feeling of distinctions between North and South India.
5. Language controversy and politics of language.
6. Discriminatory treatment of States by the central government on political grounds.
7. Tendency of separateness in the Union of India.
8. Emergence of regional political parties and their preference for regional issues and identities.
9. The role of neighbouring countries in inciting regional feelings in certain parts of the country.