- Though the Indus Valley Civilization represents the first urbanization of India, though the majority of the people lived in rural areas. The Harappan cultural zone identical with the political area was a stable unit evident by its continuity by over 600 years. It was probably rules by a class of merchants or a ruling coalition made of merchants and priests. Anyway, this would be confirmed till the time we are not able to decipher the Harappan script.
- Since no temple have been neither found, nor religious structures (except the fire altars of Kalibangan and the Great Bath of Mohenjodaro) which alternately could have been used for ablution, it seems improbable that priests ruled.
- Indus society was highly stratified, evident by the sizes of houses: from ‘coolie barracks’ to 30 roomed houses.