What is Genetic Code?


>There are 64 possible codes from the combinations of the four bases present in DNA and messenger RNA and 20 amino acids present in body proteins: some of the amino acids are coded by more than one codon and some codons have other functions.

One codon, AUG serves two related functions:

•it signals the start of translation
•it codes for the incorporation of the amino acid methionine (Met) into the growing polypeptide chain
The genetic code can be expressed as either RNA codons or DNA codons. RNA codons occur in messenger RNA (mRNA) and are the codons that are actually “read” during the synthesis of polypeptides (the process called translation). But each mRNA molecule acquires its sequence of nucleotides by transcription from the corresponding gene. Because DNA sequencing has become so rapid and because most genes are now being discovered at the level of DNA before they are discovered as mRNA or as a protein product, it is extremely useful to have a table of codons expressed as DNA.

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