Crater Lakes and Salines Lakes

Crater lakes are formed by the impounding of water in the craters of extince volcanoes. These lakes have a circular outline and are surrounded by deep walls of lava. Usually Crater Lakes are very deep and their depth is the greatest near the centre. The Crater Lake of Oregon and the Caldera of Roman Campagana are some of the most outstanding lakes of this type. Such lakes are also found in the Avergne District of France and the Eifle region of Germany.
Salines lakes are the salt water lakes of arid and desert regions. These are not so short-lived as the playas and are more permanent. They have a more constant water supply but are bitter in taste because of the lack of an outlet. But these may also disappear leaving behind a ‘salt-Pan’. The best case in point is the 4000 square miles saline Lake Eyre, which lies in the ‘Dead Heart’ of Australia.

Australia Standing in Research in the World

Australia has one of the most productive and efficient science systems in the world.

  • Australia is among the 153 top performing countries in all fields. Australia is ranked # 10 for citations, # 9 for papers and # 29 for citations per paper (According to ISI Essential Science lndicators 5M).
  • The number of Australian scientific publications per million of the Australian population increased from 1149 in 2004 to 1318 in 2005. This is the highest level ever recorded in recent years.
  • The citation impact index of the Australian scientific publications was 1.14 times the world average (2004 data).
  •  In 2002, there were almost 8 researchers for every 1000 Australian workers, placing Australia 9th in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
  • Over the period 1996-2001, Australia was highly productive in obtaining biotechnology patents (European Patent Office) compared to other countries, behind only Denmark and Canada.
  • Australia may only have a third of one percent of world’s population, but it contributes 2.5 percent of world’s medical research.
  • Taking advantage of the world-class research facilities, around 200 core biotechnology companies operate in Australia more per capita than in the United States.
Australian of the year for their Contribution to the World or Science

Scientist and their Contribution
Tim Flannery – Climate Change Crusader, one of the worldss leading writer-scientist thinkers and an internationally acclaimed explorer and environmentalist.
Professor Ian Frazer – Has developed vaccines to prevent and to treat cervical cancer.
Dr. Fiona Wood – Invented a spray on skin for burns victims. Where previous techniques of skin culturing required 21 days to produce enough cells to cover major burns, Fiona has reduced that period to five days.
Prof. Fiona Stanley – Australian of the Year 2003, Founding Director of the Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, in Subiaco, Western Australia.
Sir Gustav Nossal AC CBE FAA FRS – His confirmation of Burnet!s theory of antibody formation was a turning point in the medical profession’s understanding of the immune system.
Professor Peter Doherty, Nobel prize in Medicine for his work in Immunology Research.
Sir John Cornforth AC CBE – Nobel Laureate in stereochemistry.
Sir John Eccles AC, Joint Winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his pioneering work on the chemical means by which signals are transmitted by nerve cells.
Sir MacFarlane Burnet and a British scientist shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for the discovery of the concept of acquired immunological tolerance.

Australia was the first country in the world to introduce a circulating series of polymer banknotes. These notes have, as a major security element, a distinctive transparent window, as well as a range of other printed security features.
In addition to their enhanced security, in Australia the notes last four times longer than the paper notes they replaced. At the end of their life they may be recycled for use in a variety of plastic products. Many countries now use this Australian developed technology.

Australia’s Nobel Prize Winners for Science and Medical Research

Nobel Prize Winners from Australia
Professor Barry
J Marshall and Professor
J Robin Warren
Awarded the prize for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease 1996.
Dr Peter Charles Doherty: Awarded the Nobel Prize for his research concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence.
Sir John Warcup Cornforth
His research provided insights into the way the chemistry of enzymes is influenced by their three-dimensional structure.
Sir John Carew Eccles
Awarded the 1963 Nobel Prize for medicine and physiology for work on the transmission of the nerve impulse.
Sir (Frank) Macfarlane Burne
Awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine for his ‘clonal selection’ theory of antibody production and his insights into the phenomenon of immunological tolerance. It is said he provided the foundation for modern biotechnology and genetic engineering.
Sir Howard Walter Florey
Awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine for his development of penicillin. Over the past century, tens and possibly hundreds of millions of lives have been saved thanks to the work of Sir Florey.
The ramifications of Florey’s work have been greater than “just” penicillin and “just” saving lives the discovery of penicillin’s astonishing properties opened the door to the development of many other antibiotics.
Sir (William) Lawrence Bragg
The youngest recipient of the Nobel Prize which was jointly awarded with his father, Sir William Henry Bragg.
Together they discovered the X-ray technique for investigating the structure of crystals.