A place where water naturally flows to the surface is called a Spring. Springs differ between themselves by the conditions of natural underground water discharge depending on such factors as the nature of the water- bearing rocks (porous or fractured), the exposure of the river or gulley slope, the mode of occurrence of the rocks etc. Sometimes, springs emerge at the sea floor and are called ‘Submarine Springs’.
Springs fed by ground waters are called Gravity Springs, and htose fed by pressure waters are called Ascension Springs. Springs fed by vadose water are subjected to the greatest fluctuations, to the point of complete disappearance at certain times. Most constant are gravity springs fed by ground waters, even though their flow and properties also vary depending upon seasonal changes in the hydrometeorological conditions.
Ascension springs are the natural places of discharge of pressure waters. Typically they are distinguished by more or less constant regime, i.e. head of pressure, flow, chemical composition, temperature etc. they are usually confined to the discharge areas of artesian basins and are often associated with tectonic fault zones.
A springthat breaks out at or near the foot of an escarpment, especially where chalks lie on clay or limestone and sand stone lie on clay.
Vauclusian Spring- the resurgence of reappearance of an underground stream, called after the Fontaine de vaucluse in the lower Rhone valley. It occurs commonly in the limestone country, where water wears subterranean ramifications, finally issuing from the limestone at its base.