Although it is not always possible to prevent knee injury, the following suggestions may help forestall injuries and joint deterioration:

Keep extra pounds off: Maintaining a healthy weight is one of the best things you can do for the knees. Every extra Kilo puts additional strain on the joints, increasing the risk ligament and tendon injuries and even osteoarthritis.

Get strong, stay limber: Because weak muscles are a leading cause of knee injuries. You will benefit from building up the quadriceps and hamstrings, which support the knees. Try knee extensions, hamstring curls and leg presses to strengthen these muscles. Balance and stability training helps the muscles around the knees work together more effectively. Since tight muscles also can lead to injury, stretching is important. Try to include flexibility exercises in the workouts.

Be smart about exercise: if you have osteoarthritis, chronic knee pain or recurring injuries, you may need to change the way you exercise. That does not mean you have to stop being active, rather it does mean being smart about when and how you work out. If the knees ache after jogging or playing or other sports that give the joints a real pounding, consider consultation of a specialist of orthopedics.

Make sure the shoes fit well: if the shoe fits, you will be a lot safer Choose footwear that is appropriate for the sport. Running shoes are not designed for pivots and turns, for instance, but tennis and racquetball shoes are.

Baby the knees: Wearing proper gear for knee-sensitive activities can help prevent injuries. Use kneepads when playing volleyball and buckle the seat belt every time you drive.See More

What is Hypochondriasis?

The diagnosis of hypochondria must be given with caution and only when medical exams fail to point a real illness. An increased number of visits to the medical doctor, requests for second or third opinion regarding a disease the client believes is the cause of his symptoms (despite test results that show no relevant problems) or exaggerated preoccupation towards one’s health (nor sustained by medical data) can be indicators of hypochondria.

The signs and symptoms of hypochondria may be: an increased fear of illness, misinterpretation of normal bodily functions or harmless symptoms (such as a running nose, heart beats, sweating, small sores etc.), symptoms that shift or change, vague or specific symptoms, no apparent physical disorder that can explain the symptoms, at least six months of persistent disturbance.
Although the exact causes of this illness are not known, the risk factors include having a serious disease during childhood, the loss of a loved one, anxiety disorders, knowing persons with serious health problems, the belief that being in good health means that you are free of all physical symptoms and sensations, having members of the family that suffer from hypochondria and feeling vulnerable to illness.
Also, looking up (in books or over the internet) information on different symptoms or disease reinforces behaviors that make hypochondria persist or evolve. This disorder affects both men and women equally.
Hypochondria may be associated with other psychiatric disorders, such as major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder or panic disorder. It affects men and women equally.

Usually, this is a chronic disorder due to the fact that the client addresses first to medical doctors and only later seeks psychological help. However, starting the treatment earlier in the evolution might increase the rate of success. The options of treatment are psychotherapy and medication. Studies have shown that cognitive-behavioral therapy is more effective for hypochondria.
Understanding and recognizing the false or irrational beliefs that cause the health anxiety are key-points in the process of healing. The client will also learn to stop those behaviors that increase anxiety level, such as body vigilance (constantly paying attention to your bodily functions and problems that might occur).
Antidepressant medication may help during the treatment, but must be used with caution because the side effects can actually increase health anxiety.The impact hypochondria has on your life can be reduced by early recognition of the problem and getting the proper treatment method (and sticking to it!).


What is Mental Retardation?

According to the U.S. Department of Education, about 11% of school-aged children were enrolled in special education programs for students with mental retardation.
There are four categories of mental retardation: mild, moderate, severe, and profound. The roughly 80% of retarded persons who are classified as mildly retarded have an IQ between 50 or 55 and 70. Mild retardation, which may not be detected in early childhood, usually involves little sensorimotor impairment. Persons in this category can be educated up to a sixth-grade level. With adequate vocational guidance, they can live and work productively in the community as adults, either independently or with some degree of supervision.
About 10% of retarded persons are classified as moderately retarded, with IQs generally between 35 and 50. Although they usually do not progress beyond the second-grade level academically, as adults they can take care of themselves within supervised settings and perform unskilled or semiskilled work.